Wednesday, January 20, 2010

All About The Communication

Communication involves both humans (intra-psychic communication, interpersonal, group \ ...) the animal (communication within and between species) or mechanically (telecommunications, new technologies and their crosses ...),: people and animals, people, Technology ... Therefore, the subject of an investigation of several disciplines, which is not met, shared a common definition.
And if everyone agrees to define this process, differences of opinion, to describe this process.
One school of thought, gathered behind the "downhill and Communication, offers a communicative approach focuses on the transmission of information. It is in human-computer interaction in the mental process of knowledge transfer (with support of cognitive science interested).
A second course, social psychology, focuses on interpersonal communication (Triad double or group. Communication is seen as a complex system of reporting what happens when people communicate, both in terms of cognitive abilities, emotional and unconscious is viewed. In this context, we believe the information is increasing, the transmission of information is only part of the communication process and the different levels of importance of the same movement weather.
The third stream derived from psychoanalysis, focuses on the intrapsychic communication.
The communication and information transfer

Communication is the process of transmitting information. This term comes from Communicare America, "which means" pool ". Communication can be considered as a process of exchange of information and knowledge.

Communication is primarily a cognitive phenomenon. As telecommunications technology used, communication of complex functions (standard protocols, etc.) .. support

It is important to distinguish between different concepts for talking about communication:
Science communication in an attempt to develop and streamline the process of transmission between humans, machines, groups or entities. We prefer in this article, the term "science communication" or simply "communication." Communication is the result of the encounter and exchange of knowledge from many scientific disciplines, including linguistics, telegraph, telephone, psychology, sociology, politics and anthropology. Some categorize this science study and dissemination of information to information theory are connected;
a communication process can be broadly as the process of transmitting a message from a sender to one or more beneficiaries are described by a half-vote message subject at fault or comment. This act combines the message and the media, which are interconnected. Only the context changes the meaning. Then they take the term "communication process" or simply "communication." We see that there are different models of representation and therefore different approaches, what communications that take into account factors;
The channels of communication to represent different modes of transport and communications, including telecommunications, roads and railways, communications, business ... In short, everything to do with the message of the media in the industrial, commercial or technological. So far, the theory and industry, the tertiary sector (services, advertising used, and new information and communication and former ICT) are better adapted to these concepts and their use.

Alexander Graham Bell the telephone in 1876.
Communication and interaction: Social

Communication and interpersonal relationships are two similar words (see Mark E. and D. Picard, and interpersonal relationships, Dunod (col. TPO), the relationship between the means of the shape and nature of relationships (family, neighborhood, the profession. ..) that connects two people. Communication is the ratio of the interaction with the seat, if the partner. In this report, on three levels: intrapsychic (the dimensions of personality each of the protagonists) interaction (the structure and dynamics of relationships) and social (NORML, with the cultural context, values and rituals, in which it is).

Communication is the bearer of knowledge and culture. Consider the culture in strictly individual, as a wise, would be significant, aspects of civilization. Communication is the nature of the exchanges for the municipalities to share the culture.

Have always seen in recent decades, historian (Annales school) the importance of clearly stated at this point. One can trace the roads of the Middle Ages (see Georges Duby). Historians consider the cultural context in order to avoid misunderstandings (historian) on.

Today as yesterday, and channels of communication are the vehicles for disseminating information on cultural activities - have broadly - in the events, discoveries and traditions to continue.

The company itself an idea of this aspect of maintaining a corporate culture.

The culture of a community of people is probably the most important.
Historical changes in the media

We have seen in history, including the dissemination of the Renaissance and the sharing of information tool very important for the dissemination of information, which is seen in the New World. For example, the Renaissance historian (John Delumeau the important role of communication emphasized ,...) In Print (we have already seen the impact that increased travel of Christopher Columbus and theses which could be submitted in paper format BE). Gradually, it became impossible to resist the spread of new knowledge from this new medium.

Since 1830 (see) in the nineteenth century began to telecommunications services using electrical techniques (Telegraph) and electromagnetic (Hertz, Marconi, radio). The use of radio by General de Gaulle had the impact we know it. Jacques Chaban-Delmas is also aware that the radio was working as a station, but takes into account the negative impact of the vote because of the large number of recipients.
Communication Language

We have seen in history, has taken the importance of language in communication. Translations into various languages of the Book of Wonders of the World by John Mandeville had a significant impact on Explorers century, fourteenth and fifteenth (including Christopher Columbus), perhaps more than the estimate of the world and is one of Travels of Marco Polo. The edict of Villers-Cotterets (Francis, 1539) allowed the king to legal and administrative measures in a new language of communication to spread.

We have also seen the impact occurred in the seventeenth century, wrote several books in French, in areas that are reserved for America: The Utopia of Thomas More, Descartes, Discourse on Method (1637), The Provincial Letters of Pascal (1656). In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Bible Sacy had a huge influence in literature. In the eighteenth century, European courts have communicated in French. Philosophers have given their permission for the opening of the Royal Library, and can communicate in that language in many philosophical and sociological.

English is widely used for communication in many fields (computer science, economics, science, mostly). The language of the statute of communication are very different: the six official languages of the UN languages are English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic and Chinese.

However, the indigenous languages of communication at the local level, particularly in Europe, which has developed a policy on this issue.

Not necessarily the language spoken. You can also use gestures. Allows French sign language to communicate, for example, with the dove and NGOs. It's a different language, and knows its own development. In Quebec, the Quebec Sign Language.

Look at the sign language.

The image that we need to be confirmed by others. The fact that it identifies the role, status and position players, partners can be recognized in a social position, to avoid misunderstandings, conflicts and credibility. The identity of the speaker's position is stated in the declaration.

For the brand identity of a company the company is being perceived by stakeholders. Damage to brand and reputation risk, which prevents the proper functioning of society, their credibility and customer confidence.

A communication specialist can facilitate the process of influence is legal or illegal. The phenomenon of development NGOs in the context of globalization is illustrative in this regard. The sovereignty and independence of States can be, for the diffusion of open source messaging uncontrolled.

Communication is an essential element of diplomacy and the exercise of state sovereignty. If a Head of State or Government expressed their representatives at an international conference, a summit of the Earth, an international conference on a topic of global importance (trade, water, health, biodiversity), the disclosure of key terms perception of authority.

The use of English or French is a daily challenge in relations between Canada and Quebec.

It is also generally recognized that cultural and economic influence of a country is perceived to influence and use of language. Note the strong influence of English and Chinese today. But at the time of Louis XIV, the language of diplomacy and the French nobility.
Dynamic Territories

The physical space and mental (internal) must be protected. In each company, each defending their place and avoids unnecessary intrusions.

In economic planning, organizing competing groups, such as communication, established between the different organizations: the decentralized services areas of states (countries advisor ,...),, regional branches of industry groups, Small and medium businesses, chambers of commerce and industry, universities and schools of specialization, research, and research.

To understand all the details of language, it is often preferable to use a regional or local level in all cases with language, even a lingua franca in international travel.
Networking with telecommunications equipment

Communication is a necessary tool for communicating with others.

At this point we have emphasized the importance of telecommunications technologies on the electrical and electronic equipment.

If and when the appearance of this latter type of media in the nineteenth century, with the exception of the electric telegraph (since 1838) and the phone (network service transceiver base), means of communication technology Electronic (radio, television) since the Second World War, provided valuable feedback.

With the latest generation of tools for electronic communication becomes easier, the information and messages are much richer (documents, images). The e-mail, Internet ... allow to reach groups of people, and real communication in the group.
Communication problems: the context

The technical aspects of the communication must not obscure the fact of sending the major objectives of the communication message.

The advent of the Internet since 1990 on various studies conducted by sociologists and philosophers. In these studies, we find the Musso and Philippe Pierre Breton, who in some different topics have the same diagnosis: communication tends to be handled through the telecommunications and information technology. The idea is that it is the belief that we communicate with each other, because they mature technology (softphones latest ,...). Pierre Musso noted that this belief is based on the philosophy of networks, a kind of pseudo-religion "would be the rebirth of the philosophy of Saint-Simon (see Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon), based on the principle of gravitation.

In reality, the substance, the exhibition also correspond to one of the following objectives:
For more information, knowledge or emotion;
Establish a common standard for understanding;
Make a list of the most frequent contact, or start the dialogue;
Get encouraged to influence others to act according to his will;
be known for giving his identity, his third personality.

These communication problems. These problems are the different functions of your screen (see the ideas of Roman Jakobson).

We see that the media focuses too much on technology can obscure the risks of such communications.
Foundations of Computing and Communications

As regards communication as a science had some ideas that are generated by different modes of communication described below.

In the year 1980, CR Berger & SH Chaffee, a general definition, which is still the basis of scientific communication: "Science communication is to analyze the production, processing and effects systems symbols and characters to understand the theories proposed legal generalizations, which reflects the phenomena of production, processing and effects can be explained in context. "(English)

But it is interesting to other commonly used definitions:

A message is recorded in context. Can occur at any time in a place and a situation of a particular event.

Although this environment that are not part of the letter, but the accompanying statement is called context. The environment can generate noise or compromise.

The philosophy of language focuses on the context and language provides the context of a sentence: see context (language).

The context involved in these issues: culture, media exchange, language, sovereignty and identity, the creation of territorial networks of power.
The verbal and nonverbal

Verbal communication consists of linguistic signs.

These signals give the body language or languages in general known, but distinguished linguists, language and speech.
The writing, sign language to communicate the message means, how to ... The art of designing this message in a language that minimize the disturbance, is used as rhetoric. Aristotle and Cicero were scholars of rhetoric, was one of the seven liberal arts in medieval times.

It's called "non-verbal communication based on the implicit understanding of nature is expressed through language arts, music, kinetic, colors or clothing, or odors. These characters, their installation and understanding of culture and interpretation are linked.

This distinction verbal / nonverbal is not always easy to do.

The word can also be understood as expressed verbally) (Petit Larousse. This is called the oral and written communication.

This network has a number of actors, economic agents, nodes, or places of communication through the message flow. The information will be concentrated and distributed. It speaks of a network.

Social Networks

These are networks of students in schools, universities, associations, NGOs, research centers, government agencies ... Find a company if the company: Advanced Search


Transport networks (roads, canals, railways, telecommunications and information technology (telegraph, telephone, Internet) have increased over the last two centuries.

Still on the theme: semaphores Telecommunications, telegraph, telephone.

Informal interactions

It was discovered in 1960 that the widespread use of the automatic elevator, which are the children of an elevator has been removed from (a major hub of informal communication between the levels of the organization such as the boy d elevator and everybody knew everybody speaks.) document has been partly replaced by the coffee shop are now considered indispensable in offices and places of informal exchanges, it is often important.
The timing of the disclosure

A communication, which may last some time (the message is not deleted when sent) is described as "timeless." For example, a message is written in a book that approach is intemporel.Cette contact between two interconnected units. An ephemeral message, declaring that "time". For example, an oral discussion of volatile, temporary. Communication is mainly taught in engineering schools.

May in the hall, a message:
localized (concentrated in one place) as a debate;
alocalisée (worldwide) - eg, Internet, extranet;
relocated (the location of the incident is far from the point of entry, this) is the case during a telephone interview.

This concept is linked to the expression of contact between the subjects of communication.

Code (information) is a concept that usually occurs in the mechanistic view of communication. However, it is rarely the case, would be very hierarchical and authoritarian man-machine interface, the human-animal relations, and so on. With the expansion, and a pessimistic way, is the concept code is often used for the study of human relations.

Communicating in this simplified framework, the transmitter and receiver must have a common code. Communication is mainly by using a code that is the correspondence between signs and their meaning in a shared database of contacts from. The lack of common code between the transmitter and receiver is a source of misunderstandings, one can assume that it means, but this is the case:
A project manager is unien be surprised to see the French club teams need for their work. A team obviously requires that the equipment (or by supply and demand)
The same surprised branded little time available for a small project to see the European members would ask why we have a profit margin. To clarify: When you wrote in the table with 6 / 6 from the beginning and 6 / 12 end date, he thinks that by June 12 and the European team in the 6th December!
A Japanese colleague, the great respect I feel for the family of a European colleagues want to receive an invitation to dinner, the hostess of a flower as one of the most beautiful in Japan, examined: the chrysanthemum. Guarantee of Genoa on her, because this flower is a symbol for the cemetery.

In all these examples, the notion of code, the misunderstanding between the people but does not explain the concept to explain understanding. But cases are frequent in the standard code does not cause a catastrophe to hear, but relations deaf, the blind see relations, relations between strangers with no common words, etc., among the people we always try to be understanding their "understanding" from an address of the computer detects an error in the syntax of the command sent. No, really, is the code that used to be a concept apparently without tweezers.

The communication consists of transmitting a message, producing the contact. Contact is a bit "risky, especially if the" openness "and" closure "of communication. The danger of a break there was no response, Lock And Drop in fact available. This article is subject to the confidentiality of information.

This concept, in everything that facilitates communication, or not in the content of communication.

Wait for dial tone, asked the caller to repeat, you spell your name, tacitly admitted that the communication as part of protocols.

The implementation of the Protocol requires the definition of standards developed.

See also:

Feedback (or feedback, or post information in English), is the message, verbal or non-response receiver and transmitter is returned. When we speak of two messages.

His themes are the following message. The reactions can be used, where appropriate, to:
acknowledge receipt of the message;
to deny receiving the message;
Request for clarification;
overall discussion.

The concept of feedback (feedback) the results of the work of Norbert Wiener on cybernetics (cybernetics or control and communication in humans and machines (1948) Cybernetics and Society (1950)). Seems to work, after having celebrated the United States during the Second World War the industry of the United States in the war (1941-1942) to do. It is a technological leap for the approval of the mechanical data to computers and the advent of the first computer electronic technology.

This approach, scientists from the aspect of man, the linear motion (unidirectional) communication, the design of a circular process (bidirectional).

There are two forms that depend on feedback from the Vienna
The positive feedback that the phenomenon with a snowball effect of strain slopes (increase in tension between communicators. Among people, there would be no emotion between two people).
Negative comments tend to reduce in May as a phenomenon of the Regulation, be regarded as communication to make it stable and balanced. This regulation can take several forms, including the restatement or interrogation.

These two forms of reception of the message to provide feedback. The third case in which the reaction is neutral (zero), an obstacle to communication: do not know if the message was received or not.

The feedback loop leading to theoretical models and systematic information to define (in use) and organizational decision making.

The science of communication includes a wide area can be divided into several stages. In 1987, Denis McQuail is a proposal for the level of the pyramid:

Each level consists of those who fall in the form of mass communication is the level at the top of the pyramid, and therefore relates to all other levels. Refers to more people in space and time than others, and treats all lower levels. Therefore, according to McQuail, there is a preponderance of research in mass communication.

But not spread to other theories, a division into three basic levels of communication, based on:

Communication Type Sender - Message - Receiver

Interpersonal communication is the exchange rate of 1 transmitter - 1 receptors.

Among men, which is the foundation of social life. This is usually the understanding is better, but the number of beneficiaries is limited to one person. The feedback is almost systematic. These include telephone, oral and ... But oral communication. She is nonverbal. (See above).

Communication is therefore the body. Therefore, it is not rather be verbal or implied. Nonverbal communication skills is non-verbal communication, to vocalization. So when he says that the blows to right and go in this direction should be, is a case of verbal communication. While he has his arms in a gesture of protection and non-verbal communication. But it must be said here: "I hid behind my ideas, leave me alone." Facial expressions and postures are part of the communication. Gestures can convey a stronger, more pronounced than what we say. The tone of a message is also a form of non-verbal. "And:" This foundation, non-verbal, which set a good example of what one is the work of an actor is defined in the theater.

It is sometimes said that the world of communication - ie, involves the whole man - the importance of environmental intervention in environmental communication said.

For MUCHIELLI, "can not communicate." What do you say nothing, or what you say everything is communication. Our gestures, our posture, our facial expressions to be our way of saying our way to talk about these things, "say" with our receiver. Communication is also a form of manipulation. In fact, change often manipulated to communicate the environment or the behavior of others.

E 'was formalized as in the last two centuries.
Mass Communication

The Mass is an issuer (or series of related issuers), the addressee. This is understood to be worse because the noise is strong, but many receivers. Rarely feedback or very slow (we saw the countryside as a nuisance by consumers, baby diapers, for example, boasted reduced lead product sales).

This type of communication has been developed with the advent of concepts of mass organization in the four elements of standardization, Fordism, Taylorism and advertising ...
We talked to the press or media. These include radio, television and radio. The lack of response may be a matter of propaganda, constantly stresses the ideal Georges Bernanos.

The advent of the Internet allows for feedback.

In France, the link status significantly culture and communication, from a single department. First is the ministries of propaganda.

One of the books as the founder of the concept of "mass", though questionable in its content and objectivity, the psychology of the masses (1895) psychopathologists Gustave Le Bon. The Hidden, Vance Packard book shown here that the science of manipulating very late in the year 1957. Back to Brave New World by Aldous Huxley in the same direction.
Group Communication

Group statement on a new channel to handle a class of individuals with a message (announcement) on her understanding and concentrated culture defined.

And "he who comes with the forms of modern culture, often spend much of the culture () is a consumer, is that ads targeted to the last and most obvious.

The effects of communication in the group, including interpersonal communication and mass communication.

Group communication is so complex and varied as the group size, group functions and personality of its members are linked.

We can also this concept in internal communications to a different location. Then the groups are categories of staff, people in the same department, etc..

We also take this concept to a target of some external partners and stakeholders of the company.
Communication Patterns

Many theorists have tried to design the communication as "communication". There is an exhaustive list because many complementary models.

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